CURRENCY-FORWARD-CONTRACT CASH-FLOW MAPPING AND VALUE-AT-RISK CALCULATION PROCEDURE
IDENTIFICATION OF STANDARD MATURITY ZERO COUPON BONDS FOR AGGREGATION-CORRELATION-MATRIX POPULATION
- The rationale for using standard maturity bonds is that these are usually actively traded in deep and liquid markets and therefore reliable market-consistent data for valuation parameters such as bond returns volatilities and correlations is readily available. Decomposing cash-flows from our instrument and mapping them to standard maturity zero coupon bond cash-flows therefore makes the output from our calculations market-consistent.
- The standard maturity bonds chosen for cash-flow mapping should ideally be the ones that closely straddle the swap contract payment times, or where possible match the swap contract payment times.
- To understand the language used in this application, suppose we have a bond that pays a coupon at time T(i) whose value-at-risk we want to calculate. We have chosen standard maturity times for zero coupon bonds in our market as T(0),T(1),T(2),T(3), and T(4) in ascending order. In this application, the shortest standard maturity time T(0) is called the zero-indexed sorted time, and T(4) is called longest standard maturity time. Suppose that after sorting the coupon payment time T(i) and standard marturity times, we get the following array of values in ascending order: T(0), T(1), T(i), T(2), T(3), T(4). The time T(1) to the left of T(i) is called the left adjacent time for this particular coupon payment time and the time T(2) to the right of T(i) is called the right adjacent time. If the time T(1) is of the same value as T(i), T(1) will then be called the matching time . When the system displays output allocation for coupon payment at T(i), it will allocate them between T(1) and T(2) then display values at other standard maturity times as zero. The process will be repeated for all other bond's coupon payments. This is for curious users who may want to understand intermediate output data.
- Volatilities and zero-rates are assumed to be flat for maturities below the shortest standard maturity domestic bond, and flat for maturities above the longest standard maturity domestic bond.
- If the swap payment time is shorter than the shortest standard maturity domestic bond, the bond with maturity equal to the swap payment time is the first adjacent domestic bond and shortest standard maturity domestic bond becomes the second adjacent domestic bond.
- If the swap payment time is longer than the longest standard maturity domestic bond, the longest standard maturity domestic bond becomes the first adjacent domestic bond and the bond with maturity equal to the swap payment time becomes the second adjacent domestic bond.
- Volatilities and zero rates are assumed to be flat for maturities below the shortest standard maturity foreign bond, and flat for maturities above the longest standard maturity foreign bond.
- If the swap payment time is shorter than the shortest standard maturity foreign bond, the bond with maturity equal to the swap payment time is the first adjacent foreign bond and shortest standard maturity foreign bond becomes the second adjacent foreign bond.
- If the swap payment time is longer than the longest standard maturity foreign bond, the longest standard maturity foreign bond becomes the first adjacent foreign bond and the bond with maturity equal to the swap payment time becomes the second adjacent foreign bond.
- The system automatically checks for standard maturity bonds matching swap payment times where possible and calculates cash-low allocating proportions based on that.
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- The calculation of a currency-forward-contract value-at-risk is done by using its equivalence to a long position in a zero-coupon foreign bond, and a short position in a zero-coupon domestic bond. It is equivalent to a fixed-for-fixed currency swap for which both the domestic swap rate, and the foreign swap rate are zero. In this application, the currency-forward-contract is therefore treated as a customised currency swap, hence the usage of currency swap wording in both MVC output-display view and database records.
- Log into your account or if you are a new user, register your account and enable two factor authentication.
- Click on the [Currency forward contract value-at-risk] button, this will take you to the Dynamic-text-blocks parameters page.
Dynamic text-blocks parameters page
- Select to enter pairwise-flat or pairwise-varying correlations between domestic and foreign standard maturity zero-coupon bonds, and exchage rate.
- The number of domestic zero-coupon bonds standard maturity times is set by the system to 2, since all that is needed is currency-forward-contract expiry period to value the domestic zero-coupon bond.
- The number of foreign zero-coupon bonds standard maturity times is set by the system to 2, since all that is needed is currency-forward-contract expiry period to value the foreign zero-coupon bond.
- The time till next swap payment in years is taken by the system as the expiry period.
- The swap payment frequency per year is simply recorded as the reciprocal of the expiry period.
- Click the submit button, and this will take you to the array populating page.
Array populating page
- Enter domestic zero-coupon bonds standard maturity times.
- Enter zero-rates at domestic zero-coupon bonds standard maturity times.
- Enter domestic standard maturity zero-coupon bonds daily volatilities.
- Enter foreign zero-coupon bonds standard maturity times.
- Enter zero-rates at foreign zero-coupon bonds standard maturity times.
- Enter foreign standard maturity zero-coupon bonds daily volatilities.
- Enter pairwise correlations between domestic and foreign standard maturity zero-coupon bonds, and exchage rate.
- Click the submit button, this will take you to the Currency forward contract value-at-risk calculation parameters page.
Currency forward contract value-at-risk calculation parameters page
- Select the name of domestic currency of valuation from the drop-down list.
- Select the name of foreign currency of valuation from the drop-down list.
- The number of outstanding swap payment times is set by the system to 1.
- The observed domestic rate convertible swap-payment-frequency times per year resulting in next swap payment is set by the system to 0.
- The observed foreign rate convertible swap-payment-frequency times per year resulting in next swap payment is set by the system to 0.
- Enter forward contract price per unit of foreign currency.
- Enter the number of forward contract units.
- Enter forward contract expiry period.
- The domestic principal value is set by the system to the product of forward-contract-price and number-of-forward-contract-units.
- The foreign principal value is set by the system to the number-of-forward-contract-units.
- Enter the spot-exchange-rate: domestic currency units per unit of foreign currency.
- Enter the exchange rate daily volatility.
- Enter the confidence level for value-at-risk calculation.
- Enter number of days for value-at-risk calculation horizon.
- Click the submit button and this will take you to the output display page.
Output display page
- You can view pricing model output together with input parameters you entered.
- At the bottom of the page you can click on the button to create database record for the current model output. This will take you to the create database record page where you should click on the create button to create the database record.
- After clicking on the create button to create the database record, you will be taken to the database records view page, where you can scroll vertically or horizontally to view database records including the one you just created.
- You can filter database records according to the currency of valuation using the filter box. You can click on the details link on the extreme right of a particular database record, this will take you to the particular database record details page.